While part of the regiment guarded the Platte trail and Overland telegraph, the remainder was sent to Fort Laramie for the spring campaign against the Sioux on Powder river. Indians fairly swarmed along the telegraph line, but the soldiers were never driven from the field and the wires were kept in working order. Preston B. Plumb was ordered to reopen and protect the Overland stage line and give all possible protection to emigrants and other travel.
For the next. Less glorious was the performance of the Sixteenth Kansas cavalry in the Black Hills. The Sixteenth had the misfortune to participate in a disastrous campaign. General Connor's forces were outnumbered and out-generaled by the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors. The attempt to strike the Indian in his stronghold resulted in so much grief that the project had to be abandoned. The losses of the Sixteenth nevertheless were very small.
One soldier was killed and one wounded. In October General Grant announced his Indian policy. Generals Sherman and Pope were instructed to give particular attention to the problem of putting an end to Indian troubles along the great overland highways.
The Indian War of 1864
Additional permanent forts were to be established along the Platte, Smoky Hill and Arkansas river routes. Finally the volunteers were to be replaced by 4, colored troops. Another important event of October, , was the negotiation of a treaty with the southern plains tribes. The Chivington massacre had the effect of practically annulling the treaty of Fort Wise, since the Cheyennes and Arapahoes were afraid to remain in the region set aside for them in Colorado by the treaty. Hence it was desirable to make a new treaty which would include not only peace terms but provisions for settling the Indians on a permanent reservation.
Indian commissioners selected by congress came to Kansas in October and negotiated treaties with the Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Comanche, and Kiowa tribes. Two treaties were made: one with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, the other with the Comanches and Kiowas.
On October 14, on the Little Arkansas river, near the site of the present city of Wichita, the final agreements were drawn up. The United States was represented. Harney; Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indians affairs in the central superintendency; Kit Carson, the famous frontiersman; William W.
Bent, the fur trader; Jesse H. Leavenworth, agent of the Comanches and Kiowas; and James Steele. The Indian delegation was composed of the most influential members of their respective tribes. The first. The Indians were not to settle upon the reservations until the United States had extinguished the titles of the Cherokees and other claimants.
When absent from these reservations the Indians were not to go within ten miles of any of the main-traveled routes.
Catalog Record: The Indian War of | HathiTrust Digital Library
All claims of the Indians to the region between the Platte and the Arkansas were given up. Article 3 permitted the Indians to range in the unsettled portions between the two rivers. Article 9 abrogated all existing treaties. The United States senate on May 22, , ratified the treaty with four amendments. The most significant of these was the amendment to article 2. The senate provided that no Indian reservation mentioned in the treaty should be located within the state of Kansas.
It was also amended to remove personal reference to Colonel Chivington. The senate amendments were accepted by the Indians in November, , and the treaty was formally proclaimed by President Johnson on February 2, As a preventive of future Indian wars the treaty was defective.
The Cheyennes and Arapahoes were left without any definite reservation, since the senate amendment to article 2 excluded them from Kansas, while article 9 took away their Colorado reserve. With these tribes turned loose and allowed to roam at will between the Platte and the Arkansas, the danger of conflict with the whites remained as grave a problem as ever.
Furthermore, that part of article 2 which provided for the Indians remaining away from the. Much evidence exists to cast doubt upon the permanency of the Indians' peaceful intentions. On their way to the council grounds a party of braves celebrated by attacking a Mexican train near Fort Dodge and killing five men. In November, , consequently, Colonel Leavenworth was able to report truthfully that "his Indians" had for the most part, if not entirely, stopped depredations along the Santa Fe trail. Crawford, Kansas in the Sixties , Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs , Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyennes , Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs , Kansas Daily Tribune Lawrence , July 27, August 7, Reprint from the Leavenworth Conservative.
Adjutant General's Correspondence , Kansas. Major Pollard, commander of the Eighth regiment K.
Pollard to Carney, July Kansas Daily Tribune , Lawrence August 7, A reprint from the Leavenworth Conservative. Kansas Daily Tribune , August Reprint from Marysville Kansas Enterprise. Reprint from Leavenworth Conservative.
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Letter from general superintendent of the Overland mail line to the Hon. Senate Report No. Adjutant General's Correspondence Even George Bird Grinnell, who presents the Cheyenne side of the story, admits that most of the Indians in the tribe were hostile. He states that the old men were for peace while the young men were all for war, The Fighting Cheyennes , ; for Governor Evans' side of the case see Senate Report , Appendix, , 39 Cong.
Chivington in his report stated that over were killed, while George Bent estimated Numerous testimonials given before the Joint Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War agree on this statement. Senate and House Proceedings , Cong. Globe , 38 Cong. Senate Debate , Cong. Globe , 39 Cong. Official Copy of the original treaty.
Archives, Kansas Historical Society. Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs , , Kansas Daily Tribune Lawrence , May 2, Junction City Kansas Union , August 19, House Journal , Kansas Legislature , Jerome A. Greene is a retired historian with the National Park Service.
He resides in Colorado. Be the first to leave a review. About the Book The decades-long military campaign for the American West is an endlessly fascinating topic, and award-winning author Jerome A. Little Crow and others who were determined to fight had in the meantime fled west, only to be pursued by the army in mid In present-day North Dakota , Sibley, now a brigadier general , fought pitched battles at Big Mound July 24 , Dead Buffalo Lake July 26 , and Stony Lake July 28 and claimed to have inflicted over casualties and destroyed huge quantities of winter stores in the process.
Farther south, Brig. Alfred Sully descended on roughly 1, Dakota at Whitestone Hill on September 3, killing a few hundred warriors and capturing about as many women and children. The army continued the blows into , with Sully and 2, men driving off Indian attacks at Killdeer Mountain July 28 and torching another massive stockpile of supplies and equipment. In response to the turmoil in the northern Plains, nervous officials in the Colorado Territory convinced themselves that the bloodbath would spread to the southwest. During the first half of , regulars and volunteers thus engaged in a series of skirmishes with Kiowa , Apache , Cheyenne , and Arapaho mounted parties.
John M. Chivington then determined to take matters into his own hands, reportedly hoping that a victory over the Indians would jump-start his political career. Camped near Sand Creek, Colorado Territory, were about Cheyenne and Arapaho followers of Black Kettle, who was known to be attempting to make peace. They slaughtered between and Indians, mutilating most of the corpses in the process.
News of the Sand Creek Massacre ignited a full-scale war. Attacks against non-Indian travelers increased in early , and for a month that spring all contact between the city of Denver and points east was severed. Tribal economies could not long support such a conflict, however, and most native peoples of the central Plains soon returned to their normal patterns of life, the raids having satisfied their need for revenge. Midyear offensives by the army, in turn, failed to locate significant numbers of Indians.
The prohibitive costs of the U. Plains Wars. Article Media.